|Chemical Properties||Back Directory|
Nonmetallic halogen element in group 17 of the periodic table. An 9, aw 18.99840, valence of 1, no other
stable isotopes, the most electronegative element
and most powerful oxidizing agent known.
pale yellow gas with a pungent odour
Fluorine is a yellow compressed, gas.
Commonly shipped as a cryogenic gas. It has a characteris tic pungent odor; the odor threshold is 0.035 ppm.
|[refractive index ]|
Stable. Extremely strong oxidant which may react violently with combustible materials, including plastics, reducing agents and organic material. Reacts with water to form corrosive acids.
|[Water Solubility ]|
Fluorine was finally isolated in 1886 by Moisson. Fluorine occurs chiefly in fluorspar (CaF2) and cryolite (Na2AlF6), and is in topaz and other minerals. It is a member of the halogen family of elements, and is obtained by electrolyzing a solution of potassium hydrogen fluoride in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride in a vessel of metal or transparent fluorspar. Modern commercial production methods are essentially variations on the procedures first used by Moisson. Fluorine is the most electronegative and reactive of all elements. It is a pale yellow, corrosive gas, which reacts with practically all organic and inorganic substances. Finely divided metals, glass, ceramics, carbon, and even water burn in fluorine with a bright flame. Until World War II, there was no commercial production of elemental fluorine. The atom bomb project and nuclear energy applications, however, made it necessary to produce large quantities. Safe handling techniques have now been developed and it is possible at present to transport liquid fluorine by the ton. Fluorine and its compounds are used in producing uranium (from the hexafluoride) and more than 100 commercial fluorochemicals, including many well-known high-temperature plastics. Hydrofluoric acid is extensively used for etching the glass of light bulbs, etc. Fluorochlorohydrocarbons have been extensively used in airconditioning and refrigeration. However, in recent years the U.S. and other countries have been phasing out ozone-depleting substances, such as the fluorochlorohydrocarbons that have been used in these applications. It has been suggested that fluorine might be substituted for hydrogen wherever it occurs in organic compounds, which could lead to an astronomical number of new fluorine compounds. The presence of fluorine as a soluble fluoride in drinking water to the extent of 2 ppm may cause mottled enamel in teeth, when used by children acquiring permanent teeth; in smaller amounts, however, fluorides are said to be beneficial and used in water supplies to prevent dental cavities. Elemental fluorine has been studied as a rocket propellant as it has an exceptionally high specific impulse value. Compounds of fluorine with rare gases have now been confirmed. Fluorides of xenon, radon, and krypton are among those known. Elemental fluorine and the fluoride ion are highly toxic. The free element has a characteristic pungent odor, detectable in concentrations as low as 20 ppb, which is below the safe working level. The recommended maximum allowable concentration for a daily 8-hour time-weighted exposure is 1 ppm. Fluorine is known to have fourteen isotopes.
|[CAS DataBase Reference]|
7782-41-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
|[NIST Chemistry Reference]|
|[EPA Substance Registry System]|
|Safety Data||Back Directory|
|[Hazard Codes ]|
|[Risk Statements ]|
R7:May cause fire.
R26:Very Toxic by inhalation.
R35:Causes severe burns.
|[Safety Statements ]|
S9:Keep container in a well-ventilated place .
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
A poison gas. A skin,
eye, and mucous membrane irritant. A most
powerful caustic irritant to tissue. Mutation
data reported. A very dangerous fire and
explosion hazard. A powerful oxidizer.
Reacts violently with many materials.
with ammonia, cesium fluoride +
fluorocarboxylic acids, cesium
heptafluoropropoxide, 1or 2
halocarbons (e.g., carbon tetrachloride,
chloroform, perfluorocyclobutane, iodo form, 1,2-d~hlorotetrafluoroethane), liquid
hydrocarbons (e.g., anthracene, turpentine),
hydrogen, hydrogen + oxygen, hydrogen
fluoride + seleninyl fluoride + heat, nitric
acid, silver cyanide, sulfur dioxide, carbon
monoxide, sodium acetate, sodium bromate,
stainless steel, water.
Reacts to form explosive products with
alkanes + oxygen (forms peroxides), cyano guanidine, perchloric acid (forms fluorine
perchlorate gas), potassium chlorate (forms
fluorine perchlorate gas), potassium
hydroxide (forms potassium trioxide).
Forms explosive mixtures with acetonitrile
+ chlorine fluoride, ice.
Ignition or violent reaction on contact
with acetylene, ceramic materials, covalent
halides (e.g., chromyl chloride, phosphorus
pentachloride, phosphorus trichloride,
phosphorus trifluoride, boron trichloride,
silicon tetrachloride), halogens (e.g.,
bromine, iodine, chlorine + spark or heating
to 100°C), dcyanogen, gaseous
hydrocarbons (e.g., town gas, methane,
benzene), hydrogen halide gases or
concentrated solutions (e.g., hydrogen
bromide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen iodide, hydrogen fluoride), metal acetylides
and carbides (e.g., monocesium acetylide,
cesium acetylide, lithium acetylide, rubidium
acetylide, tungsten carbide, ditungsten
carbide, zirconium dicarbide, uranium
dicarbide), metal cyano complexes [e.g.,
potassium hexacyanoferrate(II), lead
hexacyanoferrate(lII), potassium hexa cyanoferrate(III)], metal hydrides (e.g.,
copper hydride, potassium hydride, sodum
hydride), metal iodides (e.g., lead iodide,
calcium iodde, mercury iodide, potassium
iodde), metals, metal salts, metal shcides
(e.g., calcium disihcide, lithium hexasilicide),
nickel(IV) oxide, nonmetals (e.g., boron,
yellow or red phosphorus, selenium,
tellurium, sdicon, carbon, charcoal, sulfur),
oxygenated organic compounds (e.g.,
methanol, ethanol, 3-methyl butanol,
acetaldehyde, trichloroacetaldehyde, acetone,
lactic acid, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, ethyl
acetate, methyl borate), nonmetal oxides
(e.g., arsenic trioxide, nitrogen oxide,
dinitrogen tetroxide), oxygen + polymers
[e.g., phenol-formaldehyde resins (bakelite),
polpacrylonitrile-butadiene (Buna N),
polyamides (nylons), polychloropene
poljrvin~7lchloride-vinyl acetate (Tygon),
(Won), polyurethane foam, polymethyl
polytetrafluooethylene (Teflon)], sulfides
(e.g., antimony trisulfide, carbon disulfide
vapor, chromium (II) sulfide, hydrogen
sulfide, barium sulfide, potassium sulfide,
zinc sulfide, molybdenum sulfide), xenon +
catalysts (e.g., nickel fluoride, silver
difluoride, nickel(IⅡ) oxide, silver (I) oxide).
Incandescent reaction with boron nitride,
hexalithium dshcide + heat, metal borides,
metal oxides (e.g., nickel(Ⅱ) oxide, alkali
metal oxides, alkaline earth oxides),
nitrogenous bases (e.g., aniline,
dmethylamine, pyridne), gahc acid.
Incompatible with cesium heptafluoro
propoxide, cyanoguanid~ne, halocarbons,hexalithmm dishcide, seleninyl fluoride,
hydrogen sulfide, oxygen, sodium acetate,
sodium bromate, sodium dicyanamides,
most organic matter, H-containing
molecules, oxides of S, N, P, alkali
metals,and alkaline earths. It reacts violently
with halogen acids, hydrazine, ClO2, coke,
cyanamide, cyanides, KNO3, (PbO +
glycerol), CCl4, shcides, skates,
trinitromethane, alkenes, alkyl benzenes,
CS2, Cr(OCl)2, Al, T1, Sn, Sb, As, natural gas,
liquid air, perfluoropropionyl fluoride,
polyvinyl chloride acetate. Many reactions
go on even at <-160°. Reacts with water or
steam to produce heat and toxic and
corrosive fumes. Used as one component of
liquid rocket fuel and in chemical lasers. See
|[Hazardous Substances Data]|
7782-41-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
|Hazard Information||Back Directory|
FLUORINE(7782-41-4) is a pale yellow gas with a pungent odor. FLUORINE(7782-41-4) is commonly shipped as a cryogenic liquid. FLUORINE(7782-41-4) is toxic by inhalation and skin absorption. Contact with skin in lower than lethal concentrations causes chemical burns. FLUORINE(7782-41-4) reacts with water to form hydrofluoric acid and oxygen. FLUORINE(7782-41-4) is corrosive to most common materials. FLUORINE(7782-41-4) reacts with most combustible materials to the point that ignition occurs. Under prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat the containers may violently rupture and rocket.
Propellant; ignites upon contact with alcohols, amines, ammonia, beryllium alkyls, boranes, dicyanogen, hydrazines, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, nitroalkanes, powdered metals, silanes, or thiols [Bretherick, 1979 p.174]; Aluminum powder and iodine in close contact will ignite spontaneously, Fluorine with metals requires added heat for ignition, [NFPA 491M]. Antimony is spontaneously flammable in fluorine, chlorine, and bromine. With iodine, the reaction produces heat, which can cause flame or even an explosion if the quantities are great enough, [Mellor 9:379(1946-1947)]. The oxides of the alkalis and alkaline earths are vigorously attacked by fluorine gas with incandescence, [Mellor 2:13(1946-1947)]. Fluorine causes aromatic hydrocarbons and unsaturated alkanes to ignite spontaneously, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:55(1956)]. Fluorine vigorously reacts with arsenic and arsenic trioxide at ordinary temperatures, [Mellor 9:34(1946-1947)]. Bromine mixed with fluorine at ordinary temperatures yields bromine trifluoride, with a luminous flame, [Mellor 2:12(1946-1947)]. Calcium silicide burns readily in fluorine, [Mellor 6:663(1946-1947)]. The carbonates of sodium, lithium, calcium, and lead in contact with fluorine are decomposed at ordinary temperatures with incandescence, [Mellor 2:13(1946-1947)]. A mixture of fluorine and carbon disulfide ignites at ordinary temperatures, [Mellor 2:13(1946-1947)]. The reaction between fluorine and carbon tetrachloride is violent and sometimes explosive, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1, 198(1956)]. The uncontrolled reaction between fluorine and chlorine dioxide is explosive, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1, 532(1956)]. Fluorine and silver cyanide react with explosive violence at ordinary temperatures, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:63(1956)]. Fluorine and sodium acetate produce an explosive reaction involving the formation of diacetyl peroxide, [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:56(1956)]. Selenium, silicon, or sulfur ignites in fluorine gas at ordinary temperatures, [Mellor 2:11-13(1946-1947)]. Each bubble of sulfur dioxide gas led into a container of fluorine produces an explosion, [Mellor 2:1(1946-1947)]. Fluorine and thallous chloride react violently, melting the product, [Mellor, Supp. 1:63(1956)].
|[Air & Water Reactions]|
Water vapor will react combustibly with Fluorine; an explosive reaction occurs between liquid fluorine and ice, after an intermediate induction period, [NASA SP-3037: 52(1967)]: If liquid air, which has stood for some time is treated with Fluorine, a precipitate is formed which is likely to explode. Explosive material is thought to be Fluorine Hydrate, [Mellor 2:11(1946-1947)].
Powerful oxidizing agent; though nonflammable, it reacts violently with a wide range
of both organic and inorganic compounds and thus
is a dangerous fire and explosion risk in contact
with such materials. Toxic by inhalation, extremely
strong irritant to
Poisonous; may be fatal if inhaled. Vapor extremely irritating. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Chronic absorption may cause osteosclerosis and calcification of ligaments.
Elemental fluorine is used in the con version of uranium tetrafluoride to uranium hexafluoride;
in the synthesis of organic and inorganic fluorine com pounds; and as an oxidizer in rocket fuel.
If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any
contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least
15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek
medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the
skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately
with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately.
If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure,
begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, includ ing resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if
heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical
facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medi cal attention. Give large quantities of water and induce
vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. If
frostbite has occurred, seek medical attention immediately;
do NOT rub the affected areas or flush them with water. In order to prevent further tissue damage, do NOT attempt to
remove frozen clothing from frostbitten areas. If frostbite
has NOT occurred, immediately and thoroughly wash con taminated skin with soap and water.
May ignite other combustible materials (wood, paper, oil, etc.) Mixture with fuels may explode. Container may explode in heat of fire. Vapor explosion and poison hazard indoors, outdoors, or in sewers. Poisonous gas is produced in fire. Avoid contact with all oxidizable materials, including organic materials. Will react violently with water and most organic materials to produce heat and toxic fumes. Keep gas in tank, avoid exposure to all other materials.
UN1045 Fluorine, compressed, Hazard Class:
2.3; Labels: 2.3-Poisonous gas, 5.1-Oxidizer, 8-Corrosive
material, Inhalation Hazard Zone A. Cylinders must be
transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated
truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage.
The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity
allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill
them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill
compressed gas cylinders without the express written per mission of the owner.
Fluorine is an extremely powerful oxi dizing gas. Keep away from heat, water, nitric acid, oxidi zers, organic compounds. Containers may explode if
heated. Reacts violently with reducing agents; ammonia, all
combustible materials, metals (except the metal containers
in which it is shipped). Reacts violently with H2O to form
hydrofluoric acid, oxygen and ozone. The most potent
Return refillable compressed
gas cylinders to supplier. Fluorine may be combusted by
means of a fluorine-hydrocarbon air burner followed by a
caustic scrubber and stack. Consult with environmental
regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal
practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant
(≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations gov erning storage, transportation, treatment, and waste